|Environment & Health||ISSN: 2077-7477 eISSN: 2077-7485
No: 3 (108) - 2023 - Pages: 4-10
Chemical carcinogens in the environment of ukraine: risk to the population, ways of prevention, improvement of hygienic regulation
Chernychenko I.O.1, Balenko N.V.1, Lytvychenko O.M.1, Babii V.F.1, Kondratenko O.Ye.1, Hlavachek D.O.1
1 State Institution "O.M. Marzłeiev Institute for Public Health of the NAMSU", Kyiv
The purpose of this work was to determine the carcinogen-hazardous factors in the environment and the criteria for assessing their danger to the population in modern conditions (pre-war period).
Materials and methods of research: reports of research works of the Laboratory of Hygiene of Carcinogenic Factors and Nanomaterials of the SI «O.M. Marzieiev Institute for Public Health, NAMS of Ukraine» and own publications over the past 5 years. Bibliosemantic, analytical, hygienic and medical-statistical methods were used to process the materials.
Results. The analysis of field and analytical studies has shown that over the past 20-25 years old, against the backdrop of a reduction in industrial emissions, the volume of use of plant protection products and plant products in agricultural activity has increased significantly, and in everyday life – household chemicals, cosmetics, etc., most of which contain specific substances – endocrine disruptors.
It was shown that over the years, the rate of increase in the rate of cancer of the endocrine organs (cancer of the mammary, thyroid, prostate glands), uterine body and ovaries increases. The obtained data indicate a trend towards rejuvenation of oncological diseases of hormone-dependent organs.
The danger of atmospheric air pollution in cities has been studied; a comparative assessment of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk for the population in a highly industrialized city with a complex of ferrous metallurgy enterprises and a city where there are no specific sources of pollution was carried out.
It was concluded that for study of environmental issues regarding the state of the air environment, it is sufficient to use hygienic indicators - maximum permissible concentrations and total pollution indicators, while for the assessment of the impact on human health, the use of risk indicators is more adequate.
This raises the question of the compliance of domestic hygienic (medical and sanitary) regulations with international risk indicators. This is especially true for factors with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
The analysis of risk indicators for a number of carcinogenic substances included in the domestic regulatory and methodological bases at the level of their maximum permissible concentrations proved that the standards for atmospheric air according to the international classification scale correspond to an acceptable risk (1 - 104) for only 26% of substances, and for air of the working area - 45% of substances.
Consequently, most of the hygienic standards, both in the atmospheric air of populated areas and in the air of the working area, according to international standards, do not meet the safety requirements for the population and need to be revised using international approaches and focusing on the risk criteria for the development of neoplasms due to the action of individual compounds.
Conclusions: the real air pollution in populated areas poses a certain danger to the population and requires preventive measures to reduce it.
The currently existing national regulatory framework for the permissible content of carcinogenic substances in the air environment (atmospheric air and air of the working area) does not meet the requirements of the EU and the USA.
chemical carcinogens, hygienic standards, risk to the population, hormone-dependent forms of cancer
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