|Environment & Health||ISSN: 2077-7477 eISSN: 2077-7485
No: 2 (82) - 2017 - Pages: 17-22
Cancer risk assessment for the population of the industrial cities of Ukraine
ChŚrnychenko I.O.1, Lytvychenko O.M.1, SovertkovA L.S.1, Tsymbaliuk S.M.2
1 State Institution "O.M. Marz≥eiev Institute for Public Health of the NAMSU"
2 Kyiv City Endocrinology Center, Ministry of Health of Ukraine
”ń : 616.006:614.7:615.277.4
Objective. We performed a comparative assessment of the role of ambient air pollution with carcinogenic compounds in the number of the industrial cities of Ukraine in the development of oncological diseases of the population.
Materials and methods. The research was carried out in 3 cities with different levels of the industrial development ó Kyiv, Cherkasy, Kremenchuh. 8 carcinogenic compounds: benz/a/pyrene, volatile N-nitrosamines (N-nitrozodimethylamine and N-nitrozodiethylamine), formaldehyde and heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, lead, chromium VI) were studied in ambient air. For the assessment of the risk of these substances and their contribution to the formation of population cancer incidence in the cities we used a methodology of risk assessment. The information database was formed with the help of the Microsoft Excel computer program and software package.
Results and discussion: Analysis of air monitoring data of the cities (for almost 20-yearsí period) showed a stable pollution with these substances and its variability. The air quality assessment in the cities by the total pollution indicators showed their slightly excess of the permissible level of total pollution with those compounds. At the same time, risk indices (non-carcinogenic risk) indicate that even such an excess poses a threat to public health; by the value of these indicators a number of the compounds, having the most negative influence, were identified. The total carcinogenic risk of the influence of these substances on the population of the cities was established to be high (>10Ė3) according to the US EPA classification. The population risk, calculated on this basis, demonstrated that the influence of these 8 carcinogens could cause 2-3 new cancer cases every year.
Conclusions. The results of long-term monitoring studies have shown the stable pollution of the atmosphere with carcinogenic compounds (8 substances) in some Ukrainian cities. The non-carcinogenic risk of the identified pollution was calculated according to the value of this index, a number of the compounds, affecting the most negatively the health of the population of studied cities, was detected. The total carcinogenic risk of the ambient air of the cities, polluted with these substances, is classified as a high one that causes 2-3 new cancer cases every year.
carcinogenic substances, ambient air, carcinogenic risk, non-carcinogenic risk, oncological morbidity
2. Ots≥nka ryzyku dlia zdorovia naselennia v≥d zabrudnennia atmos- fernoho pov≥tria: metodychn≥ rekomendats≥i MR 2.2.12-142-2007 [Assessment of the Risk for the Health of the Population from the Ambient Air Pollution: Methodical Recommendations MR 2.2.12-142- 2007]. Kyiv : MOZ Ukraini; 2007 : 28 p. (in Ukrainian).
3. Derzhavn≥ san≥tarn≥ pravyla okhorony atmosfernoho pov≥tria naselenykh m≥sts v≥d zabrudnen- nia kh≥m≥chnymy ≥ b≥oloh≥chnymy rechovynamy : DSP-201-97 [State Sanitary Norms on the Protection of Ambient Air of the Settlements from the Contamination of Chemi- cal and Biological Substances : SSR-201-97]. Kyiv : MOZ Ukrainy; 1997 : 57 p. (in Ukrainian).
4. Malonoh K.P., Lytvychenko O.M. and Bondarenko Yu.H. Vyvchennia vplyvu zabrudniuvach≥v atmosfer- noho pov≥tria na stan zdorovia na- selennia [Study of the Impact of Am- bient Air Pollutants on the Health State of the Population]. In : H≥h≥ena naselenykh m≥sts: zb. nauk. prats [Hygiene of Settlements]. Kyiv ; 2006 ; 47 : 58-63 (in Ukrainian).
5. Chernychenko ≤.O., Lytvy- chenko O.M., Tsymbaliuk S.M., Shvaher O.V., Sovertkova L. S. and Balenko N.V. Kh≥m≥chn≥ kantseroheny atmosfernoho pov≥- tria : vplyv na zakhvoriuvan≥st naselennia na rak shchytopod≥b- noi zalozy [Chemical Carcinogens of Ambient Air : Impact on the Populationís Morbidity of Thyroid Gland Cancer]. In : H≥h≥ena nase- lenykh m≥sts: zb. nauk. prats [Hygi- ene of Settlements]. Kyiv ; 2015 ; 66 : 104-110 (in Ukrainian).
6. Supplementary Guidance for Conducting Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. Washington, 2000 : 194 p.