|Environment & Health||ISSN: 2077-7477 eISSN: 2077-7485
No: 4 (105) - Decemder, 2022 - Pages: 28-35
The effects of small doses of ionizing radiation in the development of the incidence of diseases of the digestive organs in persons evacuated from the 30-kilometer zone of the Chornobyl NPP during 1992-2016. Epidemiological observation
Prykashñhykova K.Ye.1, Yaroshenko Zh.S.1, Kapustynska O.A.1, Kostiuk G.V.1, Polianska V.M.1, Sirovenko V.I.1, Olepir O.V.1, Lukianiuk V.A.1, Shevelova V.I.1
1 State Institution "National Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine of the National Medical Academy of Ukraine”, Kyiv
Objective: Epidemiological assessment of the risks of developing non-neoplastic diseases of the digestive organs in evacuees from the 30-kilometer zone of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant in 1992–2016, analysis of the impact of ionizing radiation in small doses.
Materials and methods: Epidemiological studies were conducted in a cohort of 4501 adults evacuated from the 30-kilometer zone of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant, with the presence of reconstructed effective doses of external ionizing radiation in the range of 0.001 Sv ÷ 0.38 Sv.
The total cohort of subjects was stratified into 2192 individuals with exposed doses in the range of 0.001 Sv ÷ 0.05 Sv (IG) (internal control) and 2.309 individuals with exposed doses in the range of 0.051 Sv ÷ 0.38 Sv (EG). Epidemiological indicators used are absolute risk (AR), relative risk (RR) with 95% (±CI) confidence intervals (changes in risk values at the level of significance (p<0.05), attributive risk (ATR). Calculations were made by the number of people-years at risk during the years of observation (diseases detected for the first time per 103 person-years)
The effect (of diseases) per unit value of the factor (1 Sv) (dose-effect) was determined by the excesses of the relative risk (ERR, 95% CI) with a confidence interval and the attributive risk (ATR, %) with the percentage of exceeding the absolute risk in the studied EG compared to IG.
Research results. As a result of epidemiological studies, the role of small doses of ionizing radiation in the formation of digestive tract pathology in adults which were evacuated from the 30-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant during the post-accident period was revealed. A significant excess of absolute, attributive and relative risk indicators was determined in patients which were exposed to effective doses in the range of ˂ 0.051 Sv ÷ 0.38 Sv. The highest absolute risk indicators were found in the groups «Diseases of the oral cavity, salivary glands and jaws» (K00-K14) and «diseases of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum» (K20-K31).
Conclusions. Small doses of ionizing radiation have a special effect on the nature and intensity of the development of digestive organs’ pathologies in people, which were evacuated from the 30-kilometer zone of the Chîrnobyl nuclear power plant.
However, in order to estimate the share of this pathology’s contribution to the overall morbidity, it is necessary to conduct additional studies.
evacuees, diseases of digestive organs, development risks, absolute risk, relative risk, attributive risk
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