|Environment & Health||ISSN: 2077-7477 eISSN: 2077-7485
No: 2 (82) - 2017 - Pages: 44-49
Assessment of traffic-related human health risks in Darnytskyi and Dniprovskyi districts of Kyiv city
1 State Institution "O.M. Marz³eiev Institute for Public Health of the NAMSU"
Objective. We assessed the human health risks formed by traffic-related air pollution on the territory of Darnytskyi and Dniprovskyi districts in Kyiv city.
Materials and methods. We used human health risk assessment methodology approved by the USA Environmental Protection Agency for the assessment of the human exposure to motor vehicles emissions and calculation of the corresponding human health risks. Air pollution dispersion model ISC-AERMOD View v.8.8.9 was applied to obtain averaged (1-, 24- hour and annual) pollutants’ concentrations formed by 28 motorways and 6 crossroads within study area. We used the methods of observation and recording of the vehicle fleet intensity, composition, and road situation. Research outputs were processed with statistical tools and methods of geospatial analysis (ArcMap v.10.1, Esri).
Results. Averaged concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (based on NO2), sulfur dioxide, non-methane hydrocarbons, particular matter ÐÌ10, and formaldehyde were calculated for 952 receptors with point increment of 250 meters. Based on exposure estimates, non-carcinogenic risks (hazard quotients HQ) for acute and chronic exposures were calculated. Additionally, total chronic hazard for inhalation exposure pathway (hazard index HI) was estimated. Under acute exposure we revealed an excess of the allowable level (HQ>1) only for ÐÌ10 in Darnytska Square (HQ=1.2) and Sobornosti Ave. (HQ=1.4). Chronic non-carcinogenic risks were above recommended levels (HQ>1) for nitrogen oxides (based on NO2) – HQ ranging from 1.26E-02 to 2.07E+00; nonmethane hydrocarbons – HQ from 1.58E-02 to 3.18E+00; ÐM10 – HQ from 5.53E-03 to 1.27E+00. At chronic exposure the hazard quotients for other pollutants were at the acceptable level (ÍQ<1) and a health risk was minimum. A total non-carcinogenic risk for chronic exposure (HI) was determined in a range from 4.04E-02 to 5.43E+00, this indicates a possibility of 1.5-5.4 fold increase of the frequency of negative reactions in respiratory system.
risk assessment, exposure, traffic, air pollution, respiratory system