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JOURNAL

ISSN 2077-7477 (Print)
ISSN 2077-7485 (Online)

A journal "Dovkillia ta zdorovia" (Environment & Health) publishes the articles on the problems in the field of medical ecology, hygiene, health protection and ecological safety.

Founder of the Journal:
State Institution "O.M. Marzeiev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine"

Frequency of publication:
quarterly

Environment & HealthISSN: 2077-7477 eISSN: 2077-7485
No: 3 (88)   -   September, 2018   -   Pages: 8-15
Immunological effects as a criterion of carcinogenic hazard of joint effect of endogenic nitrosamines and magnetic field of industrial frequency
Balenko N.V.1, Hryhorenko L.H.1, Dumanskyi Yu. D.1, Sovertkova L.S.1, Serdiuk Ye.A.1
1 State Institution "O.M. Marzeiev Institute for Public Health of the NAMSU"

SUMMRY:
Objective: We studied the immunological effects of the exposure of endogenic nitrosamines and their precursors jointly with the electromagnetic field of industrial frequency (50 Hz).
Materials and methods: The experiment was performed in 160 white outbred female rats aged 6-8 weeks divided into 4 groups: 1- intact control; 2 -introduction of the precursors of nitrosamines (sodium nitrite - 100 mg/kg, tetracycline - 20 mg/kg); 3 - irradiation with magnetic field of 50 Hz, 90μT; 4 introduction of the precursors of nitrosamines and irradiation with magnetic field of 50 Hz. The precursors were introduced once a day, 5 days a week during 3 months. Magnetic field irradiation was carried out for 7 hours daily at the same terms in specially equipped chambers. Endogenic synthesis of nitrosamines was controlled by means of their determination in liver and kidneys. Immune system state was assessed in 1 and 3 months after exposure to studied factors with the help of the complex of the tests: determination of the number of leucocytes and their qualitative composition, a number of T- and B-lymphocytes; reactions of phagocytosis, degranulation of basophiles (after Shelly), inhibition of macrophage spreading. Obtained findings were analyzed statistically with the help of Students ratio.
Results: The more profound changes in the immune system under joint effect of endogenically formed nitrosamines, their precursors and magnetic field of industrial frequency were established in comparison with the isolated action of these factors. These changes were manifested in a stable suppression of T- and B- cell chains, expansion of their spectrum due to the activation of unspecific factors and development of mildly expressed reactions of autosensibilization and sensibilization, hypersensitivity of delayed type. The cell chain of the immunity was the earliest sensitive one to the effect of studied factors, suppression of the immunity was revealed in a month and was stable for 3 months during the whole experiment.
The correlation, previously established by us, between the levels of early suppression of T-lymphocytes and genotoxic effect, both at isolated and joint factors effect, was confirmed. The maximum decrease of the level of suppression was noted under joint effect of the factors and complied with the maximum frequency of micronuclei in a bone marrow. The less expressed suppression was observed under isolated effect of the factors and accompanied by the lower level of the frequency of micronuclei.
These results demonstrate the possibility of the use of the complex of early parameters of immunosuppression and genotoxicity as the early criteria for the prognostication of the hazard of the effect of the industrial frequency magnetic field and chemical carcinogens of nitrosamine class.
Conclusion: The increase of the suppression of T-cell chain of the immunity and genotoxic effect was established under joint exposure of the levels of endogenic nitrosamines, forming at the introduction of the precursors of their synthesis (sodium nitrite, 100 mg/kg; tetracycline, 20 mg/kg) and magnetic fields of the industrial frequency (50 Hz, 90μT; ), in comparison with isolated effect, which indicates a larger potential oncogenic hazard of joint effect of chemical carcinogenic nitrosamines and magnetic field.



KEYWORDS:
immunological investigations, nitrosamines, industrial frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz), joint exposure, rats
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