|Environment & Health||ISSN: 2077-7477 eISSN: 2077-7485
No: 3 (79) - 2016 - Pages: 74-79
Environmental factors as a reason of thyroid gland pathology (analytical review, the first report)
Antonenko A.M.1, e-mail: email@example.com, Korshun M.M.1, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
1 Hygiene and Ecology Institute, O.O. Bohomolets National Medical University, Kyiv
ÓÄÊ: 57.042 : 616.441-02
gland pathology is the third in the structure of general morbidity of the population of Ukraine and the whole world. Nearly 2 billion people of the planet are in a zone of risk of the development of iodine deficiency diseases. Disease control of such an origin is one of the important tasks of the World Health Organization.
Objective. We analyzed and systematized the environmental factors that can be the reasons of the development of thyroid gland pathology.
Physical, biological and chemical (natural and anthropogenic) factors belong to the exogenous factors affecting the development of the pathology of thyroid gland. The physical factors include ionizing radiation, ambient temperature and solar starvation; biological factors – various bacteria and viruses that cause thyroid gland diseases (such as Graves' disease); chemical ones – a decrease or an increase of the concentration of iodine, selenium, calcium etc. in water and foodstuffs.
Changes in ambient temperature may lead to the disruption of thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion, the activation of metabolism and excretion of hormones of their organism, the disorders of their functions. Ionizing radiation can affect the functioning of thyroid gland leading to the development of hypofunction, cancer and nodular goiter.
Bacterial pathogens may have the antigens that are homologous to the autoantigens to the gland cells.
Iodine is an essential substrate of thyroid hormones synthesis. Decrease of its concentration in the organism leads to the development of diffuse toxic goiter, endemic nontoxic goiter, thyroiditis. Selenium plays an obligate role in thyroid hormone synthesis because the enzymes, involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, are selenoproteins. Selenium deficiency leads to the oxidative damages and a decrease of the production of peripheral triiodothyronine. Calcium is an essential biotrace element which can exhibit a goitrogenic effect in high concentrations.
Also goitrogenic substances are present in many foodstuffs: turnip, rutabaga, horseradish, canola, corn, bamboo, sweet potatoes, millet, soy-bean.
Conclusions. Thus, our analysis shows that there are many environmental factors of physical, biological and chemical origin that can adversely affect the human organism causing pathological changes in thyroid gland. However, potential risk of the impact of the most factors is realized at their combined effect
thyroid gland, pathology, environmental factors.
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