|Environment & Health||ISSN: 2077-7477 eISSN: 2077-7485
No: 1 (85) - March, 2018 - Pages: 8-14
Imbalance of micro- and macroelements in the organs of the immune system under exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (experimental study)
Apykhtina O.L.1, Kozlov K.P.1
1 State Institution “Institute for Occupational Health of NAMS of Ukraine”
Introduction: The introduction of cadmium nanoparticles (NP) into production makes it necessary to study the mechanism of their action both at the cellular level and at the level of organs and systems, the determination of biomarkers of their effects, especially comparing to its ionic form.
Objective: We compared the content of micro- and macroelements in the spleen and thymus of experimental animals after exposure to cadmium sulfide NP and cadmium chloride.
Materials and methods: The study was conducted on mature male Wistar rats 160-180 g, intraperitoneally injected with CdS NP of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm sizes as well as CdCl2 in 0.08 mg/kg/day dose adjusted to cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months), 60 injections (3 months) and in the post-exposure period (1.5 months after cessation of exposure). The study of macro- and trace elements was carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.
Results: In the spleen and thymus of experimental animals increase in cadmium content and changes in the content of macro- and trace elements were registered in all groups comparing to the control group. In the spleen cadmium accumulated more intensively after exposure to the CdS NP, especially larger sizes, comparing to CdCl2. The accumulation of cadmium was accompanied by an increase in the level of copper and a decrease in the content of iron, zinc, and selenium. Less significant changes in the level of trace elements in the spleen was recorded after exposure to CdS NP 9-11 nm, comparing to CdS NP 4-6 nm and CdCl2. In the thymus, there was a significant accumulation of cadmium which was accompanied by an increase in the level of copper, a decrease in the level of iron, zinc and selenium. The most significant changes were recorded in animals exposed to low CdS NP 9-11 nm comparing to CdCl2. Intensive accumulation of cadmium and an imbalance of trace elements may play a leading role in the implementation of the immunotoxic activity of cadmium compounds in nano- and ionic form.
Conclusions: Determination of the content of cadmium, macro- and microelements in the spleen and thymus allows to evaluate cadmium toxicokinetics in the body, predicting the pathogenetic features of its toxic effects, especially in the post-exposure period, as well as to study the pathogenesis of its immunotoxic action.
nanoparticles, cadmium, toxicity, thymus, spleen, copper, zinc, selenium
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