|Environment & Health||ISSN: 2077-7477 eISSN: 2077-7485
No: 2 (78) - 2016 - Pages: 70-76
Professional reliability of locomotive driver under shiftwork: effect of biological and social factors
1 SI “Institute for Occupational Health of NAMS of Ukraine”, Kyiv
Objective. We revealed the effects of biological and social nature factors on the professional reliability of locomotive driver under shiftwork.
Materials and methods. We performed the analytical literature review of the library and electronic databases (Medline, Pubmed, CIS, Embase) via Internet using search computer technology (Google, Yahoo, Rambler) by means of web-based and client-server database management systems.
Results. The existing systems of professional selection, training, body state control and correction are not effective enough to ensure the reliable daily operation of locomotive drivers. Harmful and dangerous working conditions exacerbate the development of fatigue, which is one of the underlying causes of transport accidents. Regularities of its development are closely related to the time of day, duration and intensity of the work shift, the shift series, time of the year, with human age, weather, climate and geomagnetic conditions. Thus, the circadian rhythm potentiates feeling tired at night, in the early morning hours and minimizes it at the afternoon and evening. The frequency of a signal passed at danger increases after 8-10 hours of continuous operation and increases up to 7-9 times at the 12-22-nd hours of working. The accident risk due to the fault of locomotive drivers doubled after 4-6 hours of driving compared to the first hours of operation, after 10 consecutive working days compared to the first five ones, reached maximum scores from midnight to 4 a.m., in February and August. Young drivers react to the road events quickly, but the accident commit more frequently. Ageing speeds the fatigue development and delays the recovery. The most effective way to prevent the early fatigue development is the sufficient quality sleep. However, its duration in a car is 25% shorter than at home, the sleep structure is changed. Both the sleep deficit and tiredness are the greatest at night and early morning shifts. Bad weather (precipitation), an increase in intensity of the Earth geomagnetic field increases the risk of railway incidents.
Conclusion. Optimization of working conditions, design and equipment of cabins, railway crossings, the maximum possible taking into consideration of the biological and environmental factors reducing the effectiveness of driving activities while improving chronobiological bases of working and rest regimes are a reserve for increase of the locomotive drivers professional reliability.
shift work, human-operator reliability, biological and social factors.
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