|Environment & Health||ISSN: 2077-7477 eISSN: 2077-7485
No: 1 (94) - 2020 - Pages: 64-75
The incidence of prostate cancer and the effect of chemical environmental pollution on its formation
Chernychenko I.O.1, Balenko N.V.1, Lytvychenko O.M.1, Babii V.F.1, Hlavachek D.O.1, Kondratenko O.Ye.1
1 State Institution "O.M. Marz³eiev Institute for Public Health of the NAMSU"
Background: Nowadays prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common malignant neoplasm in males worldwide. The etiology of prostate cancer is multifactorial. The chemical environmental pollutants, including endocrine disruptors (ED) with hormonal properties, are suggested to be one of the factors which increase the PC incidence.
Objective: We analyzed the literature data relating to the effect of the chemical environmental pollutants on the organism and their role in the formation of the PC incidence.
Results: Despite a relatively small number of epidemiological studies, their analysis indicates an association of the risk of the development of PC in males with the exposure of the number of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, nonylphenol, and also some metals (cadmium) with known estrogenic properties.
Although the mechanisms of PC induction by chemical compounds are different and not fully understandable, it is assumed that they are based on estrogenic, androgenic and anti-androgenic activity and violation of signaling ways of estrogen and androgen.
The previously known typical properties of the ED effect: the critical significance of the exposure in the early (embryonic and neonatal) period of the PG development in the increase of sensitivity to carcinogenesis and increase of PC risk at aging; non-monotonous dose-response relationship and the manifestation of harmful effects at low doses’ level equivalent to human exposures were confirmed experimentally as an example of BPA. The identification of stem cells and progenitor cells of differentiated epithelial cells in the gland of developing animal and PG of the adult ones is a new achievement. Epigenetic reprogramming of these cells at the exposure of ED in the early period of PG development and their key role as a direct target in the development and increase of PC risk during aging of animals was shown.
It is extremely important to obtain the similar data at the humanized PG model, created by means of xenotransplantation of normal human stem cells and PG progenitor cells to the rodents, which allows us to study the direct effect of ED on the human PG.
In general, the results of the analysis demonstrate that PC is an urgent environmental-hygienic and social problem, requiring further research and solution of the issues related to the protection of the population from the harmful effects of the environmental chemical pollutants.
prostate cancer, incidence, environmental chemical pollutions.
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